Date requested: 3/6/2018 2:47:39 PM

Requester: Alison Colotelo

Requester email: alison.colotelo@pnnl.gov

Request status: Approved

Action and Files
Target group Site Action Tags for Action Total Tags Released Start Date End date Additional Info
LGR PCE GRJ Collect all 3,062 3,062 3/26/2018 4/13/2018 The first group of fish (n = 1420) will be released over four days during the first week of testing. Approximately equal numbers of fish will be released each day. This is scheduled to occur the week of March 26, 2018 but is contingent on the construction schedule for the construction at LGR. If the second week of testing is needed, fish will be released over four days the following week (April 2-5). We require all tagged fish to be collected in the Sort by Code tanks to perform the condition assessment post-passage.
Title: Post-Construction Evaluation of the Upgraded Juvenile Bypass System at Lower Granite Dam
Project Lead: Alison Colotelo
Agency: PNL
Project Number: BPS-W-18-03
Funding Agency: USACE
Project Objectives: The primary goal of this study is to biologically and hydraulically evaluate the upgraded Juvenile Bypass System (JBS) at Lower Granite Dam (LGR) as a task under the LGR Passage and Survival Study (Study Code: SPE-W-17-1). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will evaluate the travel time and fish condition of yearling Chinook salmon through the upgraded JBS components. Survival rates of fish through the upgraded JBS will be completed using acoustic-tagged fish released as part of other tasks within this project. In addition, PNNL will evaluate the hydraulic conditions of the emergency bypass and the feasibility of evaluating the entire LGR JBS with Sensor Fish. The results of this study will provide fisheries managers with information regarding the biological effects of fish passage through the upgraded facility. The objectives of the task are as follows: 1. Evaluate travel time through JBS Phase 1 components (i.e., gatewells through Primary Outfall; gatewells through facility bypass into separator) 2. Determine fish condition (including injury and descaling) of fish passing through the Facility Bypass routes (i.e., gatewells to separator) 3. Evaluate the hydraulic conditions of the emergency bypass and the feasibility of evaluating the entire LGR JBS with Sensor Fish
Study Description: The LGR JBS is currently undergoing upgrades that include enlarged orifices, a widened collection channel, new primary dewatering structures and transportation channels, and new emergency and primary bypass outfalls. The upgrades are scheduled for completion in March-April 2018, prior to the 2018 juvenile outmigration season. The expected effect of this facility upgrade is improved survival for the millions of juvenile fish that pass through the facility every year, which leads to the ultimate goal of improved adult fish returns to LGR. However, thorough evaluation of the travel time and injury rate for juveniles that pass through this upgraded facility is needed to ensure that initial expectations are being met. Survival of fish through the upgraded JBS will be completed using acoustic-tagged fish under other tasks within this project. Methods Facility Bypass Routes (Gatewells to Sort by Code tanks) A phased approach will be used to evaluate travel time and condition of fish passing through the upgraded Facility Bypass routes. This evaluation will occur in March or early April prior to the 2018 smolt outmigration season (March – August) and will utilize yearling Chinook salmon raised at PNNL’s Aquatics Research Laboratory (ARL). Yearling Chinook salmon will be in smolt condition for testing. Initially, PIT-tagged fish will be released into the gatewells of Units 5A and 1A to pass through the 14-inch orifices. Total numbers of fish released into each gatewell will be approximately 710 each. A total of four releases will be conducted to support this study and fish will be released into each gatewell at each release (i.e., ~178 fish released into each gatewell on four release days). All releases will occur at the same time of day; likely 08:00 for comparison to earlier studies (O’Connor et al. 2014, 2015). Fish will travel through the main components of the JBS moving from the gatewells to the separator. They will pass through the separator and will be diverted into the Sort by Code tanks downstream of the separator. Once in the Sort by Code tanks, fish will be dip netted and assessed for descaling and injuries on both sides of the body using methodologies similar to O’Connor et al. (2014, 2015). Descaling and injury rates will be compared to those observed by O’Connor et al. (2015) and if a difference of more than 3% is observed subsequent releases will be conducted to determine the area where injury is occurring in the JBS. Travel rates will be measured by comparing release times into the gatewells and detections on the PIT readers within the JBS. Travel rates will then be compared to O’Connor et al. (2014, 2015) to identify significant differences. An attempt will be made to install a PIT tag detector at the orifice to allow gatewell residence time to be differentiated from the travel time of fish once in the collection channel. If significantly higher travel rates or injury and descaling rates are observed in the initial releases (gatewells to Sort by Code tanks), additional releases of PIT-tagged fish will be conducted at various locations within the JBS. Sample sizes will be determined using a power analysis based on the results of the initial releases. The specific segments to test, if warranted, will be determined based on discussions with the Corp Technical POC and LGR JFF staff; however, the key areas of focus within the JBS include: 1. Orifice passage 2. Collection channel passage to Primary dewaterer 3. Primary dewaterer to Separator 4. Separator to Sort by Code tanks All fish included in these secondary releases will be collected in the Sort by Code tanks, as described above, and comparisons among release locations will be conducted to identify the section of the JBS where injury and descaling is likely occurring. Primary Bypass Routes (Gatewells to Tailrace) To evaluate travel time of fish passing through the upgraded Primary Bypass routes, run-of-river fish tagged with acoustic transmitters released as part of the Passage and Survival of Juvenile Salmonids tasks will be used. An autonomous acoustic receiver will be deployed at the JBS outfall pipe exit in the tailrace of LGR as part of the current project. The time between the last detection on the cabled array system and the first detection on the outfall pipe receiver will be calculated to evaluate the travel time through the primary bypass. A cabled system of acoustic telemetry receivers deployed on the upstream face of LGR will allow for tracking of acoustic-tagged fish in three-dimensions as they approach and pass the dam, thus providing the information necessary for assigning route, subroute, and “hole” of passage. Therefore, travel times will be reported by gatewell, unit, and by pooling all units together. Sample Sizes It is estimated that a total of 1,420 hatchery-reared yearling Chinook salmon will be needed to meet the objectives of this study. Additional fish will be required if a statistical difference in descaling is detected between the results of this study and O’Connor et al. (2015). The number of fish will be dependent on a power analysis conducted at that time. However, it is expected that additional fish releases would not exceed 1,642 fish. Facility Bypass Routes (Gatewells to Sort by Code tanks) Sample sizes were estimated to detect differences from prior studies or regulatory requirements for dam passage. A total of 1,420 yearling Chinook salmon are required to detect a 3% difference in descaling compared to those observed by O’Connor et al. (2015). They also allow for the detection of an estimated difference (from O’Connor et al. 2015) in mean gatewell residence time of about 10.5 min and mean bypass channel to JFF travel time of about 12 min for yearling Chinook salmon released into gatewell 5A. If evaluation of specific segments of the JBS is warranted it is estimated that up to 1,642 additional fish would be needed. This sample size is assuming that the minimum detectable difference in descaling from the O’Connor et al. (2014) is observed and five segments of the JBS are evaluated. Sample size refinement will be required based on observations seen during testing. Primary Bypass Routes (Gatewells to Tailrace) Using data from past acoustic telemetry studies conducted at Snake River dams (Skalski et al. 2013a, 2013b, 2014) and powerhouse passage rates estimated as a function of river discharge and spill percentage and a constant estimate of fish guidance efficiency (McCann et al. 2015, 2016), it is estimated that about 90 run-of-river yearling Chinook salmon, 166 juvenile steelhead, and 296 subyearling Chinook salmon tagged with acoustic transmitters (for study SPE-W-17-1) will volitionally enter the JBS and be available to calculate travel rates.
Juvenile Description: Yearling Chinook salmon utilized for the facility bypass route evaluation will be raised at PNNL’s ARL or acquired from a local hatchery. Prior to testing, fish will be transported to tanks at the LGR JFF. Fish will be allowed to acclimate to the facility for a minimum of 48 hrs prior to tagging. Set-up of holding tanks will be coordinated with LGR JFF staff to minimize any impacts on other research being conducted at the same time. PIT Tagging Fish will be PIT tagged following procedures outlined in the PIT Tag Marking Procedures Manual (PIT Tag Steering Committee, 2014). Briefly, fish will be anesthetized using a dose of 40 mg/L Tricaine Methanesulfonate (MS-222) buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Once fish have reached the desired sedation, the 12.5-mm PIT tag will be injected into the body cavity. Fish size characteristics and initial condition (i.e., length, weight, descaling, preexisting injuries) will be recorded for each fish and associated with the assigned tag code. Photos of both sides of the fish will be taken to document descaling and injuries. Condition categories will follow those outlined by O’Connor et al. (2015). After tagging, fish will be held for 12 to 36 h in holding tanks before being released into the designated gatewell or subsequent evaluation location. Fish Release and Recovery The method for releasing live fish will depend on the subsection of the JBS that is being evaluated. For releases into the gatewell in front of the orifice, a release system similar to the one used by O’Connor et al. (2014, 2015) will be utilized. This system is composed of a flex hose attached to a transport tank. A knife gate will be opened to release the water and fish into the gatewell. Additional water will be pumped into the transport tank to ensure that sufficient water is available to flush the fish out. The flex hose would be supported by an A-frame on the powerhouse deck (Figure 1) and would terminate in the gatewell below the 14” orifice similar to methods outlined by O’Connor et al. (2014, 2015). PNNL will coordinate with LGR staff on the footprint required for the release mechanism and will adjust as needed. If significant differences in descaling are observed and testing specific sections of the JBS is required, fish will be released directly into the flow. PIT tagged fish will be recovered in the Sort by Code tanks within 1 hour. A small number of fish (up to 30) will also be released into the separator and be recovered in the Sort by Code tanks to assess the potential for injury due to the recovery tank. In addition, a small number of fish (up to 30) will be used to evaluate the potential for injury from the release mechanism itself prior to its use.
Smolt-to-Adult Ratio: No, determining SAR is not an objective of this study.
Collection Efficiency: No, measuring collection efficiency is not an objective of this study.
Adult Description: n/a
Certify: True